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Terminology

A

Acknowledgments

1) Recognition or honor given to people who have influenced the book being published or who have made a difference in the life of the author. 2) Section of a book containing such recognition.

Advance Print Run

Printing of a book completed before the book’s official release date.

Appendix

Part of book that follows a chapter (end-of-chapter appendix) or, more commonly, that comes after all the chapters (end-of-book appendix). An appendix contains supplemental material, such as tables or source material, which does not conveniently fit into a chapter.

 

B

Back Matter (End Matter (EM, em))

Counterpart of front matter. Any material, such as appendixes, notes, references, glossary or index, coming after the chapters of a book.

Bleed

To bleed means to extend outside the normal trim area of a book’s page. A bleed is a bar, illustration, rule or other element that extends outside the trim area. Such elements have ink that is visible on the edge of the page in the bound book.

Blogging

A blog is an online journal (a shortened form of Web log). Blogging is writing in one’s blog.

Book Block (Interior)

PDF files that comprise all book content except the cover.

Brick-and-Mortar Retailer

Retailer who sells products in a store. The term is often used to show the contrast between e-tailers (online sellers) and those who sell their products at a walk-in location.

 

C

CMYK

Initialism that refers to a system of color specification that uses four basic colors: cyan (C), magenta (M), yellow (Y) and black (K) as subtractive (rather than additive) elements. RGB colors do not conform to CMYK specifications.

Co-op Advertising

Advertising whose cost is shared between or among different companies. Such advertising is especially advantageous to smaller companies with limited budgets. Such ads are also called cooperative advertising. In some co-op advertising, a publisher or manufacturer offers incentives or discounts to retailers who promote particular books or products.

Content Editor

Person who edits the content (subject matter) of a book in addition to its form (sentence structure). A content editor often recommends substantive corrections to a manuscript, such as those affecting presentation, veracity, relevance and so forth.

Copyeditor (CE, Copy Editor)

Person who edits or redacts copy (manuscript material) submitted by an author. Such editing has the goal of correcting grammar irregularities and inconsistencies and of correcting punctuation, spelling, usage and style.

Copyright (Copyright Page, Copyright Notice)

Ownership of intellectual property such as printed matter, protected by law. The right to copy, repurpose or publish content of the copyrighted medium.

Cover Design

Aesthetic layout on the covers of a book, usually intended to be attractive or alluring to the eye.

 

D

Design (Book and Cover)

Layout, selection of font and font size and typesetting of a book. See Cover Design.

Developmental Editor

Person who deals with the overall organization of a book’s manuscript rather than with changes such as wording of sentences within paragraphs. A developmental editor also addresses reordering entire blocks of text and such an edit may extend to reordering entire chapters. The edit may also address tone, voice, addition or deletion of material, complexity of material and transitions among paragraphs and sections of the book. Compare to Book Doctor.

Discount (short discount, deep discount, industry-standard discount)

Reduced book price offered by self-publishers to authors who prepay for copies in bulk.

Distributor

Company, group or individual who sells products or services to retailers instead of to consumers.

DPI (Dots per Inch)

Convention expressing graphic resolution of a graphic file, resolution of a computer monitor or potential printing density of a computer printer.

 

E

eBook

Electronic file format to which books may be published. Although dedicated devices may be used to read eBooks, they may be read on other platforms such as PDAs and personal computers as well.

Economy of Scale

Principle that production of larger volumes of something tends to reduce unit cost because fixed costs are distributed across a greater quantity of product. Savings in per-unit cost achieved by mass production.

Endorsement (Blurb)

Promotional statement by someone recommending a book, often found on the dust cover or near the front of the book.

ePub

Electronic Publication file format brings dynamic content capabilities to files loaded into digital content devices. Dynamic content allows a digital content device to adjust font sizes and images to enhance readability.

 

F

Footnote (FN, Endnote)

A footnote is a reference citations and supplementary information that appears at the bottom of a book page. A reader’s attention is usually directed to a footnote through the use of a superscript character. An endnote takes the same form as a footnote but appears at the end of the chapter or book.

Formatting

1) Process by which a design team lays out a manuscript to create book pages. 2) Text effect applied to characters to make them appear bold, italic, sheared or otherwise.

 

G

Genre

Broad category or kind of book, generally denoted by the book’s subject matter. Some examples of book genres include romance, sci-fi, self-help and true crime.

Ghostwriter

Person contracted by an author or publisher to write or cowrite a book. A ghostwriter’s work often goes uncredited upon publication.

Grayscale

Refers to images (which may originally have been represented in color) that are composed only of black and white and the gray shades in-between.

 

H

Halftone

Refers to a method of representing the colors of an image with dots of varying sizes. If the dots are small enough, the colors of the image appear continuous. Halftones are created to prepare photographic images for reproduction across various print media.

Hardcover Book

Book that has cloth material glued to a type of pasteboard material, forming a durable cover and spine. Reference books and lending library books are often bound in this way.

 

I

Index

List of words at the end of a book that guides a reader to the specific pages on which subjects appear in the main body of the text.

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)

Unique 13-digit number (10 or 13 digits prior to 2007) that identifies a version of a book.

 

K

Keyword

Important word or phrase that is input to conduct searches on online search engines and databases to find all related results.

 

L

Line Editor

Person who performs an edit that is heavier than a typical copyedit and who considers a book’s voice, tone and phrasing. Fiction line editing considers the story’s pacing, character development, handling of details and vocabulary of the period and place where the novel is set and the naturalness and effectiveness of dialogue. A line editor also focuses on correcting errors in grammar, punctuation and writing style.

Literary Agent

Person who functions as intermediary for an author in transactions with the publisher.

 

M

Manuscript

Complete version of a book (often as an electronic text file) as prepared by the author. The term manuscript refers to both textual and graphic elements of the book. Editors and authors make preproduction book alterations to the manuscript. The finalized manuscript is used to produce a set of book pages.

Marketing

Promotional and advertising efforts to sell books.

Mass-Market Paperback

Smaller, less expensive version of a book that is usually printed well after the hardcover and trade paperback versions have been made available. Mass-market paperbacks are often sold in grocery stores and airports. Compare Trade Paperback.

 

N

Networking

Expanding one’s social network or sphere of influence by initiating mutually advantageous new relationships with people.

Nonexclusive Contract

Legal agreement in which the publisher does not exercise exclusive rights over the materials published in the author’s book.

 

O

OCR (Optical Character Recognition) scanning

Computer software that replicates textual scanned material by storing it in a text file.

Offset Printing

Common printing technology that applies layers one at a time. A reverse image of each color interfaces with the page via a roller. The roller presses against the paper applying the proper color of ink.

Online Bookseller (Online Retailer)

Bookstore on the Web that sells books and other publications to the customer at retail or discounted prices.

Online Marketing

Advertising, selling or dispensing products through the Internet.

Out of Print (OOP)

Book no longer in a publisher’s book inventory (and for which there are no republication plans). An online book search may turn up an available copy.

 

P

Proof

Printed out typeset material that looks just like the final book pages. In page proofs figures and other displays are where they will appear in the final book. Page proofs contain running heads and page numbers, and can be used for indexing.

PDF. Portable Document Format

Adobe Systems file format that can be precisely reproduced on different systems. PDF files are often sent to a printer.

Permission

1) Agreement from a copyright holder that permits the reproduction or publication of copyrighted material. 2) Process of securing agreements from copyright holder.

Print-on-Demand (POD)

Publishing arrangement in which books are printed only as orders are placed.

Print-Ready

Final PDF files of a book that have been flight-checked and are ready to go to the printer. See also PDF (Portable Document File).

Proofreading

Readthrough of typeset material to ensure that content matches the book’s manuscript. Incorrect grammar, punctuation, spelling or usage, is queried to the editor.

Publication Date

Official date when a book is to be released to the public.

Publicist

Professional who promotes a book, often by generating free advertising. A press agent.

Publicity Tour

Public circuit an author makes to publicize a book, either prior to or soon after the publication date. Typical places and appearances include book signings at bookstores or book shows and talk show appearances.

 

R

Return on Investment (ROI)

Amount of profit made after investment costs and other costs have been recouped.

Return

Book returned to and refunded by the publisher after failing to sell on the bookstore shelf. Only the front covers of mass-market paperbacks need be returned to qualify for the refund.

Review

Professional book reviewer’s published opinion of a particular book in a periodical or online.

Royalty

Payment to a book’s author that is usually a percentage of sales revenue.

Running Header

Text at the top of a standard book page that usually contains book, chapter or section title information. A recto (right-hand page) running head usually differs in content from that of the verso (left-hand page).

 

S

Self-Publishing

System of book production in which the author generally assumes the financial risk of publication. The self-publishing model circumvents the need for an author to contract with a publishing house to ensure publication of the book. A self-published book is also usually distributed and marketed by its author. See also Subsidy Publishing; Supported Self-Publishing.

Short Discount

Smaller-than-typical discount on books purchased by retailers and wholesalers. Print-on-demand titles are often sold at short discount: about 25 percent to retailers and about 36 percent to wholesalers. Such a short discount can be as small as 20 percent.

Small Press

Smaller publishing house that releases books often intended for specialized audiences.

Spine Width

Width of part of the book that is visible on a bookshelf. The spine connects the front and back covers.

Style Sheet

Document prepared during a copyedit, which enforces the standards and consistency of how numbers, abbreviations, word usage and punctuation are to be handled.

Subsidiary Rights

Rights acquired by a publisher for resale, translation into foreign languages and other reuse of a book’s content.

Subsidy Publishing

A subsidy publisher shares publishing costs with the author. The publisher typically markets the book through retailers. An author must bear at least some of the cost of copyediting, typesetting, proofreading, indexing and printing the book. Some subsidy publishers require an author to purchase a large number of copies of the book to cover the costs of its initial publication. Compare Self-Publishing; Supported Self-Publishing.

 

T

Table of Contents

This section, always called “Contents,” appears in the book’s front matter. It lists the book’s chapters and their opening page numbers.

Target Audience

Specific group of people whom a book, series or genre targets. Book marketing tends to be concentrated on the target audience.

Trade Paperback

A trade paperback is bound with a paper or heavy stock cover, usually with a larger trim size than that of a mass-market paperback. Compare Mass-Market Paperback.

Trade (Mainstream, Traditional Publishing)

Traditional way of publishing a book in which an author must find a literary agent or a publisher willing to review the manuscript.

Trim Size

Final physical dimensions of a book page after the book is bound and trimmed.

Typesetting

Formatting a book on a computer so as to result in the desired layout, font and appearance on a printed page.

 

V

Vanity Press (Vanity Publisher)

Publisher who publishes books financed solely by their authors. The author sometimes retains the copyright.

 

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